It seems an easy question to answer, because we are all so familiar with music. Musical messages discerned through information theory are not referential, yet Moles chose to describe the measurable elements in the sonic repertoire as symbols: each definable temporal stage represents a ‘symbol’ analogous to a phoneme in language.” According to Moles, music must, as an art, obey rules; the role of aesthetics is to enumerate universally valid rules, not to perpetuate the arbitrary or merely traditional.
A pronounced pedagogical interest developed in various genres of popular music , such as rock , soul , and similar idioms with great numbers of followers, especially among the young, whose gigantic festivals generated feelings of religious exaltation.
Early in the 20th century, it was regarded as a commonplace that a musical tone was characterized by the regularity of its vibrations; this uniformity gave it a fixed pitch and distinguished its sounds from noise.” Although that view may have been supported by traditional music, by the latter half of the 20th century it was recognized as an unacceptable yardstick.
Music therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety of conditions, including: psychiatric disorders, medical problems, physical disabilities, sensory impairments, developmental disabilities, substance abuse issues, communication disorders, interpersonal problems, and aging.
For example, Andrew MacPherson, a double major in electrical engineering and music, who studied composition at MIT with Peter Child and John Harbison, is a noted composer of electronic music who teaches at the University of London’s Centre for Digital Music, and is the creator of a hybrid acoustic-electronic instrument that augments the traditional grand piano.